Type 2 Diabetes and Exercise
What is type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a chronic condition and currently affects 1.7millions Australians and of those 90-95% of the diabetes population has T2DM. 1 in 14 Australians have diabetes of some form.
7.5% of the population over the age of 25 have diabetes and more than 50% don’t even know they have it.
– T2DM unlike T1DM is when the body has become resistant to the insulin that is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas or the beta cells are so overworked from trying to control the high levels of sugar in the blood, that they stop working.
– Think of it like a “lock and a key” the key represents the insulin and the lock represents the receptors in your muscles and liver and skin cells that your insulin binds to allowing the sugar to be stored.
The more you use the lock over and over and over again, the lock will eventually change shape and insulin will not fit as easily as it used to meaning your sugar levels stay higher for longer.
– T2DM continues to rise by 0.7% – o.8% annually.
How is T2DM monitored?
People with T2DM should self-monitor their blood glucose one or more times a day with a blood glucose meter. Measuring blood glucose levels is particularly important before, during and after exercise. Patients who manage and are involved in their own monitoring report more stable glucose levels and improved health outcomes.
Otherwise at least 1 check-up/year with your GP.
How does Exercise Help?
Increasing Physical Activity has been proven to be more effective than those of medications. Physical Activity can reduce incidence of T2DM by almost 60% and improve management of glucose.
In addition Physical activity will decrease proportion of body fat, decrease the risk of heart disease and improve lung fitness and capacity.
As people with diabetes age, the benefit of maintaining muscle mass through exercise is likely to improve physical function and independence.
What is the best exercise for people with T2DM?
The total exercise should include a combination of aerobic and resistance training. Research has suggested that the combination of both aerobic and resistance training into a program will significantly decrease resting sugar levels in the blood and increase the uptake of sugar into the muscles.